Joseph Fourier researched heat transfer including invisible infrared radiation discovered by William Herschel in and in an innovative memoir assessed what sources heat the globe, and the balancing emission of infrared radiation. He proposed, using an analogy with de Saussure's device, a simple formulation of what was later called the greenhouse effect ; transparent atmosphere lets through visible light, which warms the surface. The warmed surface emits infrared radiation, but the atmosphere is relatively opaque to infrared and slows the emission of energy, warming the planet. Adolphe Brongniart found fossils of luxuriant tropical vegetation in coal seams, suggesting widespread warmth and higher levels of carbon dioxide during the Carboniferous.
Moist air warmed more than dry air; CO 2 warmed most, so she concluded higher levels of this in the past would have increased temperatures. In the s Melloni combined Seebeck 's thermopile with a galvanometer to measure radiant heat transmission through air. In he noticed variations which he thought might be due to changing proportions of water vapour amounts, but did not experiment on this. He found that this increased with concentration of these gases up to a point when the effect became saturated.
His paper proposed changing concentrations of these gases could have caused "all the mutations of climate which the researches of geologists reveal" and explain ice age changes. Water vapour appeared to be the main factor, his subsequent thermal research focussed on molecular physics and meteorology. Popular belief that rain follows the plow was dismissed by Cleveland Abbe in Svante Arrhenius sought a mechanism causing ice ages, starting with the understanding that water vapour in air continuously varied, but carbon dioxide came from long term geological processes.
Warming from increased CO 2 would increase the amount of water vapour, amplifying its effect in a feedback process. In , after laborious calculations, he published the first climate model of its kind, showing that halving of CO 2 could have produced the ice age drop in temperature. From this, Arrhenius calculated the temperature increase from doubling CO 2. Experts expected climate would be self-regulating. In the s military research provided new data, showing less saturation of the greenhouse effect at high altitudes. Earlier calculations had treated the atmosphere as a single layer, Gilbert Plass used digital computers to model the different layers and found added CO 2 would cause warming.
Hans Suess found evidence CO 2 levels had been rising, Roger Revelle showed the oceans would not absorb the increase, and together they helped Charles Keeling to begin a record of continued increase, the Keeling Curve. Research in the s suggested that temperatures were increasing, and a newspaper used the term "climate change". This phrase next appeared in a November report in The Hammond Times which described Roger Revelle 's research into the effects of increasing human-caused CO 2 emissions on the greenhouse effect: "a large scale global warming, with radical climate changes may result".
A MIT report referred to the human impact as "inadvertent climate modification", identifying many possible causes. Both the terms global warming and climate change were used only occasionally until , when Wallace Smith Broecker published a scientific paper on the topic, "Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? The phrase began to come into common use, and in Mikhail Budyko 's statement that "a global warming up has started" was widely reported.
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There were increasing heatwaves and drought problems in the summer of , and NASA climate scientist James Hansen 's testimony in the U. Senate sparked worldwide interest. People who regard climate change as catastrophic, irreversible, or rapid might label climate change as a climate crisis or a climate emergency.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This page is about the current warming of the Earth's climate system. For other uses see Global warming disambiguation. Current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects. Global average temperatures declined for thousands of years, until fossil fuel-based industrialization beginning roughly years ago reversed the decline.
Global warming has intensified in recent decades. Scientists have investigated many possible causes of global warming, and have found that accumulation in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases , especially those resulting from humans burning fossil fuels , is the predominant cause. Main articles: Temperature record of the past years and Instrumental temperature record. Average annual temperature has risen faster on land than on the ice-free surface of the sea. Play media. NASA animation of annual average temperature maps dating from the late 's to modern times.
Main article: Attribution of recent climate change. Main articles: Greenhouse gas , Greenhouse effect , and Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. Further information: Solar activity and climate. For the fact-checking website, see Climate Feedback. Main articles: Climate change feedback and Climate sensitivity. Main article: Global climate model. Main article: Effects of global warming. Main article: Physical impacts of climate change. Main article: Climate change and ecosystems. Further information: Effects of global warming on human health , Climate security , Economics of global warming , and Climate change and agriculture.
Main article: Climate change mitigation. Main article: Climate change adaptation. Main article: Climate engineering.
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Main article: Politics of global warming. Main article: Scientific consensus on climate change. Further information: Public opinion on climate change and Media coverage of climate change. See also: Fossil fuels lobby and climate change denial. Main article: History of climate change science.
Global warming portal Science portal. Anthropocene — proposed geological time interval for a new period where humans are having significant geological impact Global cooling — minority view held by scientists in the s that imminent cooling of the Earth would take place Holocene extinction Planetary boundaries — climate change is one of them. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 7 August The U. This conclusion is not drawn from any one source of data but is based on multiple lines of evidence, including three worldwide temperature datasets showing nearly identical warming trends as well as numerous other independent indicators of global warming e.
Unless otherwise specified, warming is expressed relative to the period —, used as an approximation of pre-industrial temperatures in AR Global warming refers to the upward temperature trend across the entire Earth since the early 20th century Climate change refers to a broad range of global phenomena Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.
Deglacial global warming occurred in two main steps from The period from to was likely the warmest year period of the last years in the Northern Hemisphere, where such assessment is possible medium confidence. Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 7 August Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 5 February Temperatures rose by 0.
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In addition, greenhouse gas concentrations had already increased slightly by this time The — period is most suitable to be defined as preindustrial in physical terms The — period is a reasonable pragmatic surrogate for preindustrial global mean temperature. Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 20 February Figure 2. S26, SS This effect results in the increased absorption of radiation that accelerates melting.
Archived from the original on 22 February This means we get more warmer water pushing into the Gulf. Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 8 May Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 26 May United Nations Environment Programme. Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 10 October Vitals Signs of the Planet.
Archived from the original on 26 February Archived from the original on 2 September The amount of heat a surface radiates is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature in Kelvin. That finding meshes with climate predictions that dry zones will expand out of the subtropics and push storms towards the poles. The team also found that cloud tops rose higher in the atmosphere by the end of the s, again as predicted for a warming atmosphere.hampmiweblize.ml
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Eventually, the land and oceans will take up most of the extra carbon dioxide, but as much as 20 percent may remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years. Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 24 February These feedbacks can change the role of the oceans in taking up atmospheric CO 2 making it very difficult to predict how the ocean carbon cycle will operate in the future.
The Guardian, 7 August FAQ 8. That affects us all". National Geographic. Retrieved 25 August Geological Survey, 18 June Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 16 October As climate change melts sea ice, the U.
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Geological Survey projects that two-thirds of polar bears will disappear by Science Daily. Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 17 April Definitions of key terms. Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 12 April Global Change Research Program.